With technology scaling, on-chip power densities have steadily increased mak-ing our current and upcoming chips thermally constrained due to the harmful effects of high temperature on the correct functionality of on-chip systems. Spatial and temporal thermal gradients across the chip can seriously jeopardize its reliability due to a wide range of failure mechanisms.
Importantly, high on-chip temperatures contribute to faster chip aging which considerably shortens the lifetime of chips. This trend makes developing ther-mal management techniques essential to maintain a reliable operation of chips during their lifetime. In addition, performing accurate thermal analysis is a pre-requisite for evaluating the efficiency of any applied technique.
To investigate the thermal behavior of a chip, thermal simulations have tradi-tionally been employed. Additionally, direct thermal measurements can be ob-tained using the available on-chip thermal sensors. Recently, state of the art started to also employ an infrared camera to capture the thermal images of chips.